Milling Machines Development and Components

  • The milling machine was first created by E. Whitney in 1818. In order to mill the spiral groove of twist bit, J.R. brown, American, founded the first universal milling machine in 1862, which is the rudiment of the lifting and lowering milling machine. There were gantry mills around 1884. In the 1920s, semi-automatic milling machines appeared. The workbench can use the block to realize the automatic conversion of "feed fast" or "fast feed".

    After 1950, the milling machine has developed rapidly in the control system, and the application of digital control greatly improves the automation of milling machines. Especially after the 1970s, the digital control system and automatic tool changing system of microprocessor have been applied in milling machine, which expanded the processing range of milling machine and improved the machining precision and efficiency.

    With the increasing mechanization process, NC programming has been widely used in machine tools operation, which greatly releases the labor force. The CNC milling machine will gradually replace the manual operation. The requirements for employees will also be higher and higher, and the efficiency will be higher and higher.

    A horizontal universal milling machine consists of the following parts:
    1. Base: the base is the supporting part of the whole machine tool, with enough rigidity and strength;
    2. Bed: bed is the main body of the machine tool, most parts of the machine tool are installed on the bed;
    3. Crossbeam: the crossbeam is attached with a hanger, and the crossbeam can move along the guide rail on the top of the bed;
    4. Spindle: the spindle is a hollow shaft with a taper hole at the front end. The taper hole and the front end of the spindle can be seen from the outside of the milling machine;
    5. Spindle speed change mechanism: the fixed speed of the main motor is changed into 18 different speeds through gear speed change, which are transmitted to the spindle to meet the needs of milling. From the outside of the machine tool, you can see the speed plate and speed change handle;
    6. Vertical worktable: the vertical worktable is used to install and drive the workpiece to move longitudinally;
    7. Horizontal worktable: the horizontal worktable is between the vertical worktable and the lifting table, which is used to drive the vertical worktable to move horizontally;
    8. Lifting table: the lifting table is installed on the vertical guide rail at the front of the bed, and the middle part is connected with the base nut by a lead screw. Its main function is to drive the worktable to move up and down along the vertical guide rail at the front of the bed;
    9. Feed speed change mechanism: feed speed change mechanism is to change the fixed speed of feed motor into 18 different speeds through gear speed change, and transfer them to feed mechanism, so as to realize various speeds of worktable movement, so as to meet the needs of milling.